Machine learning (ML) has become prominent in information technology, which has led some to raise concerns about the associated rise in the costs of computation, primarily the carbon footprint, i.e., total greenhouse gas emissions. While these assertions rightfully elevated the discussion around carbon emissions in ML, they also highlight the need for accurate data to assess true carbon footprint, which can help identify strategies to mitigate carbon emission in ML.
In “The Carbon Footprint of Machine Learning Training Will Plateau, Then Shrink”, accepted for publication in IEEE Computer, we focus on operational carbon emissions — i.e., the energy cost of operating ML hardware, including data center overheads — from training of natural language processing (NLP) models and investigate best practices that could reduce the carbon footprint. We demonstrate four key practices that reduce the carbon (and energy) footprint of ML workloads by large margins, which we have employed to help keep ML under 15% of Google’s total energy use.
The 4Ms: Best Practices to Reduce Energy and Carbon Footprints
We identified four best practices that reduce energy and carbon emissions significantly — we call these the “4Ms” — all of which are being used at Google today and are available to anyone using Google Cloud services.
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