The US Copyright Office Review Board (“Board”) rejected a request to register a computer-generated image of a landscape for copyright protection, explaining that a work must be created by a human being to obtain a copyright. Second Request for Reconsideration for Refusal to Register A Recent Entrance to Paradise (Copyright Review Board Feb. 14, 2022) (S. Perlmutter, Register of Copyrights; S. Wilson., Gen. Counsel; K. Isbell, Deputy Dir. of Policy).
In 2018, Steven Thaler filed an application to register a copyright in a work named “A Recent Entrance to Paradise.” Thaler listed as the author of the work the “Creative Machine,” a computer algorithm running on a machine. Thaler listed himself as a claimant and sought to register the work as a “work-for-hire” as the “owner” of the Creative Machine. The Board refused to register the work, finding that it lacked the necessary human authorship. Thaler requested reconsideration, arguing that the “human authorship requirement is unconstitutional and unsupported by either statute or case law.”
After reviewing the work a second time, the Board found that Thaler provided no evidence of sufficient creative input or intervention by a human author. The Board refused to abandon its longstanding interpretation of the Copyright Act, as well as Supreme Court and lower court precedent, that a work meets the requirements of copyright protection only if it is created by a human author. The Board concluded that “A Recent Entrance to Paradise” lacked the required human authorship and therefore affirmed refusal to register. Thaler filed for a second reconsideration.
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